In the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the distribution utility companies use an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) consisting of a wireless mesh that communicates data from smart meters located on customers’ premises to the utility’s central system.
The Regulation and Supervision Bureau (Bureau) is the independent regulator of the water, wastewater and electricity Sector in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Its powers, duties and functions are set out in various Abu Dhabi laws. The main duty of the Bureau is to ensure secure supplies of electricity and water to the people of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. However, the laws also impose a range of general duties on the Bureau.
In regulating electricity, water, sewerage, wastewater treatment and disposal, we are responsible for the protection of public health, the environment and customer interests while minimising any public nuisance from these activities.
Our core business activities are:
1. Economic controls;
2. Licensee compliance;
3. Customer support;
4. Technical regulation and supervision;
5. Health, safety and environment; and
6. Corporate operations and support services.
We use economic controls to drive sector efficiency. Responsibilities include:
The Bureau is a non-profit organisation which, in accordance with Law No (2) of 1998, is funded by the payment of fees by licence holders. This provides a degree of financial independence and means that the Bureau is defined more as a non-governmental organisation (NGO) or semi-governmental and not as a government department.
Positioning the Bureau
Our stakeholders are wide-ranging and complex in their inter-relationships. They vary in their level of influence over the volume and type work we do. Their interest in our outputs also varies.
AADC Al Ain Distribution Company, EMAL Emirates Aluminium Company Limited, ADDC Abu Dhabi Distribution Company, ENEC Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation, ADFCA Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority, FANR Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation, ADFEC Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company, GCCIA GCC Interconnection Authority, ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, HAAD Health Authority Abu Dhabi, ADSSC Abu Dhabi Sewerage Services Company, ISTPs Independent Sewage Treatment Plants ,ADWEA Abu Dhabi Water And Electricity Authority, IWPPs Independent Water & Power Plants , ADWEC Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company Micro Gen Micro Generation , CEHS Centre for Environment, Health & Safety RASCO Remote Areas Services Company , CWM Centre for Waste Management TDIC Tourism Development and Investment Company , DEL Dolphin Energy Limited TRANSCO Abu Dhabi Transmission & Despatch Company , DMA Department of Municipal Affairs UPC Urban Planning Council , EAD Environment Agency Abu Dhabi.
The transmission company is responsible for reliably, securely and safely transmitting water and electricity from the production plants to the distribution networks.
The transmission company maintains and operates a network of transmission assets, including the Load Despatch Centre (LDC) and manages all planned and unplanned maintenance activities. The LDC acts as the steering body that calculates water and electricity production and controls transfer in the network (i.e. network management).
To meet demand in the most efficient and cost-effective manner, the LDC economic despatch engineers produce forecast calculations using a Unit Commitment Software.
In co-generation, the electrical power is generated by gas turbines. Excess heat out of gas turbines is used to generate steam in heat recovery boiler. In turn, this steam is used for the production of more electricity using steam turbines and fresh water using desalination. In co-generation, three desalination methods are used in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi: Multi Stage Flash, Multi Effect Desalination and Reverse Osmosis (please click on the Reverse Osmosis plant for details).
Fuel (1) is pumped into the gas turbine (2), where it is mixed with air and burned, converting its chemical energy into heat energy. As well as heat, burning natural gas produces a mixture of gases called combustion gas. The heat makes the combustion gas expand causing a build-up of pressure in the gas turbine.
The pressure drives the combustion gas over the blades of the gas turbine, causing it to spin, converting some of the heat energy into mechanical energy. A shaft connects the gas turbine to the generator so, when the turbine spins, the generator does too. The generator uses an electromagnetic field to convert this mechanical energy into electrical energy.
After passing through the gas turbine, the still-hot combustion gas is piped to a steam generator (3). Here it is used to heat pipes full of water, turning the water to steam, before going to the desalination plant (5).
The hot steam expands in the pipes so, when it emerges, it is under high pressure. These high-pressure steam jets spin the steam turbine (4), just like the combustion gas spins the gas turbine. The steam turbine is connected by a shaft to the steam turbine generator, which converts the turbine’s mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Multi Stage Flash (MSF) distillation works on the principle that seawater will evaporate once it is introduced to the first evaporator (or flash chamber). Seawater intake source comes through one common channel. Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) is a desalination process that distils seawater by flashing a portion of the seawater into steam in multiple stages that are essentially counter current heat exchangers. The plant has a series of spaces called stages, each containing a heat exchanger and a condensate collector with the first stage being the hot end and the last stage being the cold end while intermediate stages have intermediate temperatures hence different pressures which correspond to the boiling points of water at the stage temperatures.
The Multi Effect Desalination (MED) is a process that takes place in a series of effects. Vapour from the first evaporator condenses in the second evaporator and their heat of condensation serve to boil the seawater in the second evaporator. Each evaporator in the series is called an "effect".
Any treated effluent produced by a wastewater treatment works that is reused is called recycled water and any sewage sludge that is treated and reused is called biosolids.
Wastewater disposal systems convey these two products from treatment works to end-users at points of transfer.
Recycled water disposal systems are typically made up of gravity pipelines, pumping stations and pressure mains. Biosolids are typically transported from treatment works by truck.
Reverse osmosis occurs when the solution pressure is increased above the osmotic pressure (π). In osmosis, a spontaneous transport of solvent occurs from a dilute solute or salt solution to a concentrated solute or salt solution across a semi permeable membrane which allows the passage of a solvent but impedes passage of salt solutes. Solvent flow can be reduced by exerting pressure on the salt solution side and membrane until at a certain pressure called the osmotic pressure of salt solution equilibrium is reached and the amount of solvent passing in opposite directions are equal. To reverse the flow of the water so it flows from the salt solution to the fresh solvent, the pressure is increased above the osmotic pressure (π) and this process is called reverse osmosis.
Water cooling systems produce and distribute chilled water around large scale buildings to support air conditioning.
The majority of transmission pumping stations is un-manned and controlled remotely. During the pumping process, the electrolyzer produces a hypochlorite solution to maintain a residual disinfectant to complement the primary disinfection carried out in desalination plants.
The total pumping stations capacity is 2,283 million imperial gallons per day.
District cooling systems provide chilled water to a development by producing chilled water at a central location and distributing it to a large number of buildings via a closed loop distribution system. The chilled water is used in the buildings to facilitate air conditioning.
A wastewater collection network receives wastewater from domestic, commercial and industrial buildings and conveys it to the wastewater treatment works.
It is typically made up of small diameter (<200mmØ) local networks which discharge into a large diameter (<400mmØ) trunk sewer system that conveys it to the treatment plant.
There are three types of collection networks:
Wastewater treatment plants use a range of physical, chemical and biological treatment process to reduce the quantity of chemical and microbiological pollutants in the wastewater.
Treating wastewater ensures that the end product (treated effluent) can be discharged to the environment without causing a significant impact or reused for non-potable purposes.
Wastewater treatment is typically carried out in four phases:
A nuclear reactor produces electricity in much the same way other power plants do. The heat is produced from splitting atoms – a process called nuclear fission, which turns water into steam.
The pressure of the steam turns a generator, which produces electricity.
CSP (concentrating solar power) plants produce electric power by converting the sun's energy into high-temperature heat using various mirror configurations. The heat is then channeled through a conventional generator.
The plants consist of two parts: one that collects solar energy and converts it to heat, and another that converts heat energy to electricity.
The transmission network is used to transport large volumes of electricity between the power stations and the main centres of use load where it is distributed to users via local electricity distribution networks.
The transmission system is made up of two key building blocks:
The term switchgear refers to the equipment used to control and switch the flow of power within an electricity system.
A transformer is an electro-magnetical device that is used to change the voltage of an alternating current, such as the mains electrical supply. Transformers are used to increase the voltage of electricity entering the transmission system as it is more efficient to transmit electricity at higher voltages. High voltage electricity is more dangerous hence, to improve safety; once the electricity has been transported transformers are used to reduce the voltage to safe working limits for distribution and consumption.
An overhead line is a conductor of electricity, usually aluminium with steel reinforcement, suspended on towers or utility poles and is used to transmit electricity from one location to another.
A high-voltage cable, commonly referred to as HV cable, is a conductor of electricity (usually copper or aluminium) which is encased in a layer of insulation, such as poly or cross-linked polyethylene. High voltage cables are more expensive than overhead line and hence are used where the application of overhead lines is not practical, for instance in highly populated areas.
Energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of creating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration of waste. Most EfW processes produce electricity directly through combustion, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels.
PV (Photovoltaic) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect.
Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of cells containing a photovoltaic material.
Materials presently used for photovoltaic include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulphide.
A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind, also called wind energy, into mechanical energy; a process known as wind power.
A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location which may be located offshore.
Wind (1) turns the turbine blades, which spins the shaft (2) . The shaft connects the wind turbine to the generator (3), so when the turbine spins, the generator does too. The generator uses an electromagnetic field to convert this mechanical energy into electrical.